Charlestown, Middlesex County, Massachusetts Bay Colony (New England)

Charlestown was in Middlesex County from that county's creation on 10 May 1643 by the Massachusetts Bay Colony until it was annexed by the city of Boston, in Suffolk County, by a vote of the residents of both cities on 5 January 1874. In between, Charlestown was in the Province of Massachusetts Bay when the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony were merged on 7 October 1691 until the beginning of the Revolutionary War in early October 1774.

Charlestown is the oldest neighborhood in Boston and was originally a separate town and the first capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was founded in 1628, and settled July 4, 1629, by a group of about 100 primarily British puritans who preceded the Great Migration. Charlestown is located northeast of Boston proper on a peninsula extending southeast between the Charles and Mystic rivers The northern end of Boston's Freedom Trail is in Charlestown; the town was the location from which Paul Revere began his famous "midnight ride" before the Battle of Lexington and Concord; and on June 17, 1775 the Charlestown Peninsula was the site of the Battle of Bunker Hill.